The Array of Options/Optionals

03 Dec 2017 | computer-science functional-programming

This is a pattern that I saw again and again that I decided to make a quick post about it.


Consider this problem:

Given a String, split it on spaces and parse each part into an integer. If a part is not an integer, omit it from the result.

For example, '1 2 abc -3' becomes [1, 2, -3].

Initial Solution

Here’s a quick solution in Java:

public ArrayList<Integer> parseIntegerArray(String input) {
    ArrayList<Integer> result = new ArrayList<Integer>();

    for (String i : input.split(" ")) {
        try {
        } catch (NumberFormatException e) {
            // Parse fail, do nothing

    return result;

However, since we are working with data, usually there is a quick way to do it in functional programming. Indeed, assuming that all parts are integers, we can do it in one line in Ruby:

def parse_to_integer_array(input)
  input.split(' ').map(&:to_i)

(By the way, map(&:to_i) is the same as map { |s| s.to_i }, and to_i basically means “to integer”.)

Now what if there are non-integer parts? The #to_i method will return 0 here (which sucks).

In more modern languages, there are constructs that can still do this in one line. Before that, let’s talk about something else…


If you have worked with Java, you must have known about the annoying NullPointerException, which basically what happens when you try to call methods/attributes on a null value.

To solve this, modern languages have a type called the Option type (sometimes, the Optional type). Basically, it is either a None (representing a null value), or a Some (representing the value).

The integer parsing above is an example. We would like to have parse("3") to return Some(3) and parse("-12") to return Some(-12), for example. Giving invalid input, for example parse("abc"), will return None instead.

You can read more about Option types at this Wikipedia link here.

Sample implementations in languages include:

Going back to the problem

Now, if we do something like our map solution, we will get an array of Options. For example, in Swift, we can do something like:

func parseToIntegerArray(input: String) -> [Int] {
  input.split(separator: " ").map { Int($0) }

and running parseToIntegerArray("2 a 3") will return [2, nil, 3]. Now, how do we remove the nil values?

One way to do it is by using array.filter { $0 != nil }. However, there is a neater solution here…

The “flat map” function

In most libraries that support some notion of “higher order functions”, one can usually find methods like map, reduce (or fold, inject, etc), filter, flatten, for_each, and so on. Another common method is flat_map, which flattens the array after mapping them.

For example, let’s say we have an array of people: ["John Doe", "Luke Walt"]. Suppose we have a function which returns the children of a person. Calling the function on this array will produce something like, for example, [["Jane Doe", "Jake Doe"], ["Nancy Walt", "Troy Walt", "Alice Walt"]]. However, if suppose we want to get an array of strings, we can use flat_map instead of map, we can get ["Jane Doe", "Jake Doe", "Nancy Walt", "Troy Walt", "Alice Walt"] instead.

I personally have known this method for quite some time. What I didn’t know, though, is that we can treat an Option type as an array: either consisting of one element (for Some), or zero elements (for None)!

Most languages also implement flat_map to expand these Option types. Going back to the string parsing example, we have these working solutions:

Scala Solution

import scala.util.Try

def parse(input: String) = input.split(" ").flatMap(s => Try(s.toInt).toOption)

The code might look quite complicated, but Try(s.toInt).toOption basically just converts all exceptions to a None.

Rust Solution

fn parse(input: &str) -> Vec<i32> {
  input.split(" ").filter_map(|s| s.parse().ok())

Notice that in Rust, we use the special function filter_map instead. (Took me two hours to figure this out ugh)

Swift Solution

func parse(input: String) -> [Int] {
  return input.split(separator: " ").compactMap { Int($0) }

UPDATE: in Swift 4.1 the method compactMap is used to differentiate it with flatMap, which is now exclusively used as a map operation composed with a flatten operation. This is similar with Rust above where filter_map v.s. flat_map is used.

Note that we are using the Int constructor here, which actually returns Int? (the option type for integers). In Swift, this is called “failable constructors”

  • constructors that can fail.


I first saw this problem when I was doing my internship in Twitter. Basically, I have a pipeline of data that I would like to process. However, some of these data are anomalies which need to be discarded. Using Scala, all I need to do is to use the flatMap function.

I saw this again when I was learning Rust on Advent of Code 2017 Day 2. Even though the sample data given consists of all numbers, I was wondering if I can remove all bad input from the data. Which brings us back to our problem here!

To sum it up: if you need to process data that might have bad data you wish to discard, check out the flatMap function from your programming language’s array library. (If you can’t find them, try to read through all methods, just like what I did in Rust!)